This chapter laid out the intro and background to the research study, the issue declaration, research study goals, research study concerns, significance of the research study, along with the description of crucial terms and structure of the argumentation. The next chapter will offer the literature evaluation and theoretical structure that notify the research study.
2.9 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
In addition, this chapter has actually gone over the 2 theoretical frames that the scientist think concerned the research study. The next chapter will explain the research study technique used in the research study
3.3 RESEARCH APPROACH.
A research study method is a technique of collecting information. It needs the instruments utilized to perform the research study, such as observations, interviews and studies, depending on the research design (Becker & Bryman, 2002:186). The distinctions in between quantitative and qualitative research design are in nature of the data gathered and the method of analysis.
Qualitative research is an approach to social research in which quantitative data is not gathered (Bryman, 2012). As qualitative research focuses on smaller groups, it can be less expensive than quantitative research, which might require large groups of participants or pricey measurement tools. Embracing a mixed techniques approach is one method of conquering this problem.However, the researcher adopted qualitative research in order to fully comprehend the role played by academic libraries in the promo of copyrights amongst their users in South Africa (SA).
Quantitative research refers to the organized observed research of social portents (Hunter and Leahey, 2008). Quantitative research can also be defined as any data that is in mathematical kind, such as portions and stats. Qualitative research, in contrast, asks broad questions and gathers word data from participants.
3.4 RESEARCH DESIGN.
A research design is the overall plan for attaining answers to the questions being researched and for dealing with some of the problems experienced throughout the research process (Polit & Beck, 2004). The research design is also called the application arrangement of the study. It is an organized arrangement, of an investigator, which allows the researcher to respond to research questions and attain the research objectives using the data that was collected. It also ensures that the study is accomplished with the resources available (Robson, 2002; Durkheim, 2006). A research design can either use a quantitative or qualitative research method.
3.5 STUDY POPULATION.
According to Babbie (2007:190), the research study population describes a “large group from which a smaller sized depictive group referred to as a sample of the study population is drawn”. The study population has at least one shared trait allowing an investigator to generalise based upon a representative sample of observations (Knocke and Bohrstedt, 1991:12 -13).
In this study, the population were all trainees registered at the University of Fort Hare’s Alice Campus and all the library staff at the University of Fort Hare Library at the Alice Campus.
The function of collecting data from various types of sources was to allow data triangulation to contrast and validate the data, should it yield similar findings. Norman (2000) describes a study population as the total set of objects and occasions of groups of people; it is the end purpose from which the researcher wants to determine certain uniqueness and determine certain patterns. It was, however, not possible to use the entire population in this research study, however a representative sample was chosen for the objective with this study. The researcher dispersed 45 questionnaires to the participants from the University of Fort Hare Library; 40 participants (students from different faculties) were selected arbitrarily and 5 librarians were purposively selected.
Sampling is the activity of choosing cases to be observed from a study population (Babbie, 2007:180). Sampling is often utilized in circumstances where it is not possible or proper to study all of the of a population as a result of to time or resources. The investigator only gathers data from a small portion of a population of interest, but reasons about the larger group from which the sample group has been drawn (Robson, 2002:260; Knocke & Bohrnstedt, 1991:12; McClendon, 2004:5). The choice of sampling procedure depends upon the research objective and how the researcher wants to generalize the findings to a larger population, and the confidence with which to do that (Bloch, 2004:173). Robson (2002:261) explains that sampling procedures are generally categorized into probability and non-probability samples.
According to Stangor (2011 ), probability sampling aims to draw a representative sample from the population so that the results of studying the sample can be generalized back to the population. In probability sampling, the nature of the population of interest is specified and the probability of each research participant being selected is understood.
Stangor (2011:110 -114) argues that in cases where probability sampling is impossible, since there is no readily available sampling frame, non-probability samples need to be utilized. In non-probability sampling, as Robson (2002) states, you can not make such analytical reasonings however it is possible to state something reasonable about the population from non-probability samples; this is however not on the same kind of statistical arguments as if from probability sampling.
Participants in a non-probability sample are chosen by reason of the purposive personal judgment of the researcher. In non-probability sampling, the likelihood of each research participant being selected is not understood.
3.5.2 Sampling Size and Procedure.
According to Stangor (2011 ), a sample size is the number of observations utilized for computing estimations of a given population. A sample size minimizes costs and time by enabling investigators to estimate info about an entire population without needing to survey each member of the population.
3.6 DATA COLLECTION.
Polit and Beck (2004) define data collection as the event of info needed to address a research issue. All interviews were taped, as Klenke (2008) argues that transcripts of taped interviews provide a detailed variation of conversation and remove the temptation for researchers to obliterate the “undesirable” components of the interview, such as data, which goes against the investigator’s hypothesis. Klenke (2008) also discusses that an essential aspect of extensive interviews is the inherent chance for the researcher to gain more info regarding the participants’ personal experiences, views and behaviour.
To gather quantitative data, the study utilized a survey questionnaire. Survey administered questionnaires were administered to the selected trainees of the study.
3.6.1 Survey Questionnaire.
A survey was utilized to generate data which is expected to reveal the role-played by academic libraries in the promo of copyrights in SA. Polit and Beck (2004) define studies as instruments for collecting self-report information from respondents through the self-administration of questions. The utilization of questionnaires improves objectivity and supports analytical analysis. A questionnaire can also be defined as a means of eliciting the sensations, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or mindsets of a sample of individuals. As a data-collecting instrument, it could be structured or unstructured. The questionnaire is most regularly an extremely succinct, pre-planned set of questions developed to yield particular details to meet a particular need for research info about a significant topic. The research details is obtained from participants with knowledge or experience of a related location of interest. The advantage of a survey is that it is more economical than interviews and the time associated with training recruiters and sending them to interviews is decreased by the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires provide uniformity of questions, as each respondent receives the same set of questions phrased in exactly the exact same method. Surveys may, for that reason, yield data that is more comparable than details acquired through an interview. The downside of a survey is that the participant’s motivation is difficult to evaluate, thus affecting the credibility of the action.
The survey for this study contained Pre-Likert scale developed open ended and closed ended questions and a ranking scale with pre-determined response options. The studies were administered to the 40 trainees who took part in the study.
One-on-one interviews were conducted with library authorities. Because the librarians are able to provide abundant in-depth information on the role of the library in the promo of copyrights, this was. An interview permitted the researcher to acquire legitimate and reliable steps through spoken reactions from the participants (Polit & Beck, 2004). It is a discussion in which the functions of the participant and the recruiter change continuously. The advantage of an interview is that it permits the recruiter to clarify questions for the respondents. Thorough interviews also permit the informants to react in any manner they please. It allows the recruiters to observe the non-verbal and verbal behaviour of the respondents. The downsides of unstructured interviews are that they typically yield data too difficult to assess or summarize. Training recruiters, sending them to fulfill and interview their informants, and examining their efficiency all contribute to the expense of the study (Polit & Beck, 2004).
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS.
According to Durkheim (2006 ), the rationale of using data analysis is to convert data into findings essential to the original research question. The investigator is required to use a data analysis technique that fits the design of the study and that will present answers to the research question. Data analysis might utilize either a quantitative or qualitative research method (Bowling, 2009). For the qualitative research data, the investigator used material analysis to bring order, structure and indicating to the mass of data that were gathered. Material analysis allows the researcher to talk about the common styles from thick description. For the quantitative research, the data was coded and fed into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); the evaluated data was reported utilizing figures, percentages and tables.
3.8 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY.
According to Brink (2003 ), validity is the ability of a tool to determine the variables that it is planned to measure. Reliability describes the uniformity and reliability of a research tool in determining a specific variable (Brink, 2003). The tools developed for this function were shown the investigator’s supervisors and were field tested during the pilot study to ensure that they were well comprehended and could produce the details needed to examine the function played by scholastic libraries in the promotion of copyrights in HIE, in South Africa. The investigator checked the tools for appropriateness of use. The field test was done to examine instrument credibility and reliability; that is, to figure out whether the tool precisely attends to the main goals of the research to be carried out.
The research tools that were used in this study were the questionnaire for library users (trainees) and interview guides for library personnel. In order to ensure dependability, the researcher also used documentary research to complement the details that was gathered from the interviews and to determine more detail relating to the function played by academic libraries in the promotion of copyrights in HIE in South Africa. Documents are non-reactive, which suggests that the investigator does not intervene in the context and therefore does not have to rely on the participant (Maxwell, 1998).
3.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS.
Research ethics is referred to as a system of moral values that is concerned with the degree to which research procedures adhere to professional, sociological and legal commitments to the study participants (Polit & Beck 2004). The research proposition was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee of the department in which the researcher was signed up as a post-graduate learner.
The researcher acquired educated approval from the research participants. Educated permission indicates that participants have appropriate information regarding the research, are capable of comprehending the information and have power of totally free choice, hence enabling them to consent to or decrease participation in the research (Gravetter and Forzano, 2003). Just the research and the researcher supervisor had access to the completed studies and the raw data.
3.10 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER.
This chapter covered the research design used in the study, in order to gain answers to the research questions. The data collection methods utilized in the study was studies and interviews. The sampling frame, data analysis, ethical factors to consider, protection of the rights of the study organization and the defense of the respondents in the study have been described in this chapter. The next chapter provides an in-depth presentation of the data and an analysis thereof
RECOMMENDATIONS and conclusions.
This chapter discusses conclusions drawn from the study and the recommendations made. These recommendations and conclusions are drawn from the findings of the study. They are used according to the styles and sub-themes of the study, as gone over in the previous chapter. Where relevant, the investigator made recommendations in terms of policy and more research study. The suggestions were drawn primarily from the contributions of the participants themselves.
In general, the investigator holds that the objectives of the study were fulfilled which the research study questions have been responded to based upon the findings of the study, which were gone over in the previous chapter. The individuals, who took part in the study, offered the info enabling these conclusions.
This chapter consists of a summary of the findings of the study. Afterwards, the scientist will look into the conclusions and suggestions according to the styles and sub-themes laid out in the previous chapter.